The development history of photovoltaic power generation

In 1839, the French scientist Becquerel discovered the photovoltaic effect for the first time. In 1954, Bell Labs scientists Pearson and Chapin successfully developed a monocrystalline silicon solar cell with a conversion efficiency of 6%. This was the first Solar cells with practical value. This achievement marked the beginning of the era of photovoltaic power generation to provide services for mankind, and laid the foundation of materials and technology for the emergence and development of photovoltaic power generation industry. In 1958, the conversion efficiency of monocrystalline silicon solar cells made in the United States reached 8%, and it was used in space for the first time. The American “Pioneer One” satellite became the world’s first artificial spacecraft powered by solar cells. . As an excellent product for space power supply, solar cells have doubled their value as a cutting-edge high-tech product. In 1960, photovoltaic power stations using crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules were first connected to the grid in the western United States.

photovoltaic power generation

From the 1970s to 2000 years ago, the development of the photovoltaic power generation industry experienced a period of rapid development. In the early 1970s, the global energy crisis and air pollution problems became increasingly prominent, prompting developed countries with strong energy demand to strengthen the development of new energy, and ground photovoltaic power stations began to apply. At the same time, with the advancement of science and technology, the cost of crystalline silicon cells has been greatly reduced, and developed countries led by the United States have set off an upsurge in the development and utilization of photovoltaic power generation. In the 1980s, the world oil price dropped sharply. In contrast, the price of photovoltaic products was still high and lacked competitive advantages. At the same time, nuclear power generation began to develop rapidly. These have had a certain inhibitory effect on the development and utilization of photovoltaic power generation, but the photovoltaic power generation industry also It has been developing at an increasing rate of 10% to 15%. In the 1990s, as the cost of photovoltaics decreased year by year and governments of various countries paid more and more attention to environmental issues, photovoltaic power generation was once again favored and developed more rapidly, becoming one of the fastest growing high-tech industries in the world.

In 1996, the United Nations held a meeting to discuss important documents such as the “World Solar Energy Strategic Plan”, “International Solar Energy Convention”, “World Solar Energy 10 Years (1996-2005) Action Plan”, and issued the “Harare Solar Energy and Sustainable Development Declaration.” This meeting further demonstrated the firm belief of the United Nations and other countries in the world in the development and utilization of solar energy, and at the same time called for global joint action to make extensive use of solar energy.

Countries around the world have also formulated various photovoltaic development plans to vigorously promote the development of the photovoltaic power generation industry. The United States was the first country to formulate a photovoltaic power generation development plan. In 1997, it put forward the “Million Roofs” plan. The Japanese government formulated the New Sunshine Plan in 1993. The goal of the plan is to support new energy as an important energy supply method for the country. Germany is one of the earliest and most active countries to encourage the research and application of photovoltaic power generation, and its research and application of photovoltaic power generation are also in the forefront of the world. As early as 1990, Germany took the lead in launching the “1000 Solar Roof Plan”. The government provided subsidies to every household who installed solar roofs. The plan was intended to gain experience in installing solar energy equipment and make new houses compatible with renewable energy power generation needs. And encourage people to consume solar energy. Due to the rapid development, the plan was expanded into the “2000 Roof Plan” in 1993. By 1997, nearly 10,000 rooftop photovoltaic power generation systems were completed, with a cumulative installed capacity of 33MW. On this basis, the “100,000 photovoltaic roof plan” was further proposed in 1998, and the plan was implemented in 2000 to install a large number of photovoltaic power generation systems. Switzerland, France, Italy, Spain, Finland and other countries have also formulated photovoltaic power generation development plans and invested heavily in technological development and accelerated industrialization.

After more than ten years of rapid development, the global photovoltaic power generation industry has experienced a cold winter since 2011. Many large foreign photovoltaic companies have declared bankruptcy. Major countries have weakened the support of the photovoltaic power generation industry, and the international photovoltaic market continues to be sluggish. China’s photovoltaic power generation industry, which relies heavily on the international market, is facing severe challenges, with overcapacity, unsalable products, and a large number of companies with serious losses. The “double reverse” investigations initiated by European and American countries have made China’s photovoltaic power generation industry plunge into a period of low.

After the industry downturn in 2011 and 2012, the global photovoltaic power generation industry began to recover in 2013, and the problem of overcapacity was alleviated. At the same time, with the continuous growth of global photovoltaic downstream market demand and the reshuffle of upstream manufacturing companies, global overcapacity has been achieved to a certain extent Degree of relief. Most photovoltaic companies in the world have returned to profitability or reduced their losses, and some Chinese photovoltaic companies have returned to profitability. In 2013, with the rapid launch of the photovoltaic application market and the government’s support for the photovoltaic industry, the global photovoltaic industry reversed its decline since 2011, and most companies achieved full-year profit targets.

In 2015, the global photovoltaic market grew strongly, with new installed capacity exceeding 50GW, a year-on-year increase of 16.3%, and cumulative photovoltaic installed capacity exceeding 230GW. Traditional markets such as Japan, the United States, and Europe have newly installed capacity of 9GW, 8GW and 7.5GW respectively, and they still maintain a strong momentum of development. Emerging markets continue to emerge. Photovoltaic applications are developing rapidly in Southeast Asia and Latin America. Countries such as India, Thailand, Chile, Mexico and other countries have rapidly increased their installed capacity. For example, India reached 2.5 GW in 2015. China’s newly installed photovoltaic capacity is 15.13GW, which continues to rank first in the world, with cumulative installed capacity exceeding 43GW, surpassing Germany to become the country with the largest cumulative installed capacity of photovoltaics in the world. At the same time, with the advancement of technology, the cost of photovoltaic power generation continues to decrease. In 2008, the global average cost of photovoltaic power generation per kilowatt-hour was about 38 cents. In 2015, it dropped to about 7.3 cents. It is expected that it will fall again by 30 in the next 5 years. %, this will mean that the time for the rapid development of the photovoltaic industry is coming.

solar photovoltaic power

According to data from the China Photovoltaic Industry Association, the global photovoltaic market’s newly installed capacity reached 102GW in 2017, a year-on-year increase of more than 37%, and the cumulative photovoltaic capacity reached 405GW. Among them, China’s new installed capacity is 53GW, a year-on-year increase of more than 53.6%, ranking first in the world for five consecutive years, with a cumulative installed capacity of 130GW, ranking first in the world for three consecutive years. It is estimated that the installed capacity in 2018 will be 55-60GW, continuing to lead the world. The global installed capacity growth rate from 2018 to 2020 is expected to be 5% to 10%, which will continue to grow steadily. Among them, the United States in 2016 is expected to trigger a wave of installation rush due to subsidy adjustments. It is expected that with the diversification of installed capacity projects and the advancement of community solar projects, the newly installed capacity in 2018 will remain at 11GW. In 2017, India’s per capita electricity consumption was 1122W·h, which was only 1/3 of the world average. Nearly 240 million people were in a state of power shortage. The average annual electricity gap was about 13%. With a compound growth rate of 5%, the total demand in 2040 will reach 3288TW·h. In addition, India’s light resources are good. Most areas have an average of more than 2,000 hours of light per year, low photovoltaic kilowatt-hours costs, abundant light resources and strong The demand for electricity makes photovoltaic the best choice. In 2017, India’s new installed capacity was 9.6GW, an increase of 122% year-on-year, ranking third in the world, but India’s local module production capacity is limited and heavily dependent on Chinese imports. In 2017, more than 90% of installed modules were imported from China, and more than 80% were imported from China. The Japanese market subsidies continued to adjust and installed demand slowed. In 2017, Japan’s new installed capacity was about 7GW, a year-on-year decrease of 24%. In April 2017, the FIT subsidy was lowered again, and the price was adjusted for 6 consecutive years, and the price was less than half of the period when the FIT system was introduced in 2012. , Affect the newly installed capacity. It is expected that Japan’s new installed capacity will remain at the level of 7GW in 2018, and future growth will be limited. In the 2016 reform plan of the Renewable Energy Law, Germany canceled designated government purchases and turned to market bidding to issue subsidies. Italy, Denmark and other countries are racing to follow suit, leading to a decline in demand in 2016. Turkey and Germany grew rapidly in 2017. At the same time, the decline in component prices is also expected to bring demand back. Mexico’s “Special Plan for the Utilization of Renewable Energy” clearly stated that it will increase the installed capacity of renewable energy power generation, and Brazil announced ten The annual energy expansion plan proposal, PDE2016, is expected to achieve more than 13GW of solar photovoltaic installations in the country in 2026. The annual radiation of North Africa Dayang Energy is 7200~10800MJ/m2, but the cumulative installed capacity is less than 3.4GW. Golden Ball accounts for only 1%, and it is expected to enter the GW-level echelon in the future.